The Edith Cavell Public House: A history of 7 Tombland by Geoffrey Kelly
<strong>EDITH CAVELL PUBLIC HOUSE</strong>
<strong>7 Tombland, Norwich</strong>
<strong>Geoffrey I. Kelly</strong>
ANW = Archdeaconry of Norwich
NCC = Norwich Consistory Court
NCM = Norwich Castle Museum
NCR = Norwich City Records
NHL = Norfolk Heritage Library
NRO = Norfolk Record Office
TNA = The National Archives
<strong>Manuscript Sources Consulted:</strong>
Administration of the ANW (NRO: as cited in text)
Board of Health General Rate Books: (including) St George Tombland (parish, Norwich, henceforth understood re citations), 1853 and 1857 (NRO: N/T 2/2 and 2/6)
Censuses of Population: St George Tombland, 1841-1851, and 1871-1901 (TNA, albeit held at NHL: as cited in text) (NB: The 1861 Census for this parish is defective as a consequence of the ravages of vermin)
Churchwardens’ Accounts: St George Tombland, 1772-1886 (NRO: PD 106/49-50)
General District and Sewerage and Irrigation Rate Books: (including) St George Tombland, 1871, 1876, 1881 and 1886 (NRO: N/T 2/16, 2/22, 2/30 and 2/41)
Kirkpatrick, J., St George Tombland (NRO: NCR 17f14) (cited as Kirkpatrick)
Land Tax Assessments: St George Tombland, 1712-1832 (NRO: NCR 23/11)
Landgable Rent Books: Norwich, 1541-1549, 1568-1570 and 1606-1626 (NRO: NCR 18d2-4)
Manor of Tolthorpe and Felthorpe: Court Books, 1601-1890 (NRO: Norwich Bishopric Estates 164334-164340)
Norwich Survey: Medieval Property Reconstruction Map 63 (NRO: MC 146/52)
Parish Registers: St George Tombland, 1538-1856 (NRO: PD 106/1-13)
Poor Rate Books: Norwich, 1633/4, 1659/60, 1663/4 and 1672/3 (NRO: NCR 20c3-4, 7 and 12); and 1825-1844 (NRO: N/T 23/1-66)
Registers of Licences for the Sale of Intoxicating Liquors: Norwich, 1867-1965 (NRO: PS 1/8/1-4) (cited as Registers of Licences)
Subsidy Roll: Norwich, 1576 (NRO: NCR 7i)
Tillett, E.A., St George Tombland (NHL: Tillett MS XI)
Wills of the ANW and NCC (NRO: as cited in text)
Window Tax Assessments: St George Tombland, 1710-1733 (many gaps) and 1753-1766 (NRO: NCR 23/11)
<strong>Printed Sources Consulted (other than standard reference works):</strong>
Blomefield, F. and Parkin, C., <em>Essay towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk</em> 2nd ed. (London, 1805-1810)
Directories of or including Norwich: 1783-1975 (various publishers) (NHL and writer’s collection)
<em>Eastern Daily Press</em>, 1st February 2008
Jay, G.B.(ed.), <em>First Parish Register of St George of Tombland</em> (Norwich, 1891) (cited as Jay)
Maps and Plans: 1696-1972 (NHL and writer’s collection)
Meeres, F., <em>History of Norwich</em> (Chichester, 1998) (cited as Meeres)
Millican, P., <em>Freemen of Norwich 1548-1712</em> (Norwich, 1934) (cited as Millican, 1934)
Millican, P., <em>Freemen of Norwich 1712-1752 </em>(Norwich, 1952) (cited as Millican, 1952)
Norwich Castle Museum, <em>The Norfolk and Norwich Hospital 1771-1971 </em>(Norwich, 1771) (cited as <em>Hospital</em>)
Registers of Electors: (including) Tombland, 1969-2002 (NHL)
Rye, W. (ed.), <em>Calendar of Norwich Freemen 1317 to 1603 </em>(Norwich, 1888) (cited as Rye)
<strong>Arrangement of this History:</strong>
Section 1: Introduction.
Section 2: The Site from 1314/5 to between 1876 and 1879.
Section 3: The Site from between 1876 and 1879.
Map 1: Millard and Manning’s Map, 1830; unscaled (writer’s collection).
Map 2: Ordnance Survey, 1905; unscaled (writer’s collection).
Map 3: Ordnance Survey, 1938; unscaled (writer’s collection).
<strong>Section 1: Introduction.</strong>
This History has not resulted from a particular commission; rather, it has been urged upon me by one whom I might describe as an interested party. The necessary research has been carried out in the NCM, NHL and the NRO, that is beyond material held in my own files.
In general, I refer to the subject of this History as 7 Tombland prior to its first having been recorded as a public house, albeit this number was not accorded to the property until after the latter event. Otherwise, I describe it by the name of the sign under which it traded.
Dates throughout (saving a few regnal years) are given in New Style, the year having been dated from 1st January rather than 25th March as was the case prior to 1752.
This History has been produced as a Microsoft Word document; consequently, should further information concerning its subject ever be forthcoming, the text may readily be amended.
<strong>Section 2: The Site from 1314/5 to between 1876 and 1879.</strong>
The row of properties by the east side of the churchyard of St George Tombland, of which the subject of this History forms the southern end, were built under the terms of a grant from the City of Norwich according to an enrolled deed of 1314/5 (Kirkpatrick). Fuller details of the 7 Tombland site emerged from the Norwich Survey’s investigation of these deeds, which may be outlined as follows (NRO: MC 146/52 Map 63):
In 1315, William Henry of Wicklewood, marshall, conveyed land here 21 feet in length and 19 feet in width to John Frenkysh, saddler. Alan le Marshal conveyed the rent arising from a larger plot here, 31 feet in length and 29 feet in width, to Peter the son of William But, in 1333.
In 1334, the site was vested in Joan, widow of Alan le Marshal, who then conveyed it to Geoffrey de Wroxham, taverner. The latter had been admitted to the Freedom of Norwich under that trade in 1317/8 (Rye). In 1335, Peter But conveyed to Richard de Biteringe the rent arising from the messuage of Geoffrey de Redenhale (one and the same as Geoffrey de Wroxham?) for term of his life. Certainly Geoffrey de Redenhale occupied this messuage until at least 1340.
The executors of William Skye held the site in 1378/9, while in 1396/7 it was the tenement of John Gurney, esquire. In 1451/2 it was the tenement of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle; however, I did not establish if he held it until his death on 6th November 1459. In 1488 it was the tenement of John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk; I did not determine if he held it until his death, which occurred between 29th October 1491 and 27th October 1492. By 1488, while it was subject to the payment of an annual rent to Norwich Corporation, it was copyhold of the Bishop of Norwich’s Manor of Tolthorpe and Felthorpe (Kirkpatrick).
Copyhold property, it should be explained, was held at the will of the lord of a particular manor. Every time it changed hands, through sale, inheritance or mortgage, details of the transaction were entered in the manor’s court rolls or books by the steward at the periodic sittings of the manor court. A copy of the entry was given to the incoming owner as his or her title to the property: hence copyhold. This form of tenure was abolished under the provisions of the Law of Property Act, 1922; however, as was to be the case with the subject of this History, some copyhold properties were enfranchised as freehold before then.
The site of 7 Tombland was destroyed in either the great fire which raged in Norwich in March 1507 or in that which occurred here three months later. The then owner having failed to rebuild the house or at least enclose the vacant ground, by virtue of an Act of Parliament of 1537/8, Norwich Corporation seized the site, after which it was granted to one Thomas Bathcomer who covenanted to build a new house here (Kirkpatrick). I did not identify Thomas further; however, according to the Landgable Rent Book of 1541-1549, he held the tenements (<em>sic</em>) here with John Pye. The latter may be identified with the John Pye who was entered as a Freeman of Norwich under the trade of cordwainer in 1524/5 (Rye). We may take the house which Thomas Bathcomer built here with that shown on Richard Wright’s map of Tombland and neighbourhood which was surveyed in the late 1630s. This surveyor gave but a slight indication of the nature of this house; it was aligned on an east to west axis with a gable at each end (Meeres). Unfortunately, a thorough search of prints and photographs of Tombland in the NCM and the NHL failed to locate an image of the subject of this history prior to its total rebuild between 1876 and 1879.
By the Landgable Rent Book of 1568-1570, 7 Tombland was owned by Anne Bettes, a widow. She may be identified with the Anne Bettes, widow of St George Tombland, who married John Stingate of Norwich here on 11th February 1572. I did not find either or John or Anne listed in St George Tombland in the Norwich Subsidy Roll of 1576, and cannot say who owned 7 Tombland then. On the other hand, given Poor Rate evidence, this property was apparently occupied by John Crabbe from 1570. It is surely significant that he had married Agnes Bettes at St George Tombland on 5th December 1563. Agnes subsequently died, although I did not locate her burial record, and John next married Barbara Becke here on 26th September 1569.
John Crabbe can clearly be identified with the one so-named who was admitted to the Freedom of Norwich under the trade of cordwainer on 3rd September 1564, by virtue of having served an apprenticeship with John Pye, presumably the John Pye named above (Millican, 1934).
John Crabbe had clearly become the (copyhold) owner of 7 Tombland by 21st September 1598, when this property was surrendered by him to the use of his daughter and next heir, Anne, according to a retrospective entry in the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Court Book. John was buried at St George Tombland on 29th September 1600.
Anne Crabbe married Richard Hilton at St George Tombland on 3rd November 1606. She was buried here as the wife of Richard on 30th July 1607, and he next married here a widow of St George Colegate parish, Elizabeth Smith, on 20th November 1608. His daughter by Elizabeth, also Elizabeth, was baptized at St George Tombland on the following 30th June. Richard Hilton wrote his will as a tailor of this parish on 16th January 1610, and he was buried here eight days later. The provisions of his will, proved by his widow and executrix after a further six days, may be outlined as follows (NRO: ANW Will 1609 [Old Style] f.230):
He left his father and mother £1 apiece.
He left his wife and executrix, Elizabeth, his goods, chattels, movables and money due to him, she to pay his debts. He further left her, for term of her life, his copyhold messuage or tenement in St George Tombland with its shop, vault and appurtenances, after which it was to descend to their daughter Elizabeth according to the custom of the Manor of Tolthorpe [and Felthorpe].
He appointed his friend Robert Kipping of Norwich, scrivener, supervisor of his will, and left him £2.
Witnesses: William Heade, Robert Cotty and Thomas Birde.
The widowed Elizabeth Hilton had died by the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court of 18th October 1628, when her daughter and namesake was confirmed as the lawful owner of 7 Tombland. It was as a single woman that the latter surrendered this property to John Cadywold on 26th August 1630, it then having been described as a messuage or tenement with shops, cellars and appurtenances.
John Cadywold, a vintner, had lived in St George Tombland parish as early as 2nd April 1621, when his daughter Sarah was baptized here. As is about to be revealed, he also had a daughter Amy. John was certainly resident in St George Tombland in 1633/4 (Poor Rate Book evidence); however, he subsequently let 7 Tombland to Richard Hawley. John Cadywold wrote his will as a vintner of Norwich on 12th October 1643, and while I did not trace his burial record his will was proved on 3rd February 1644. This document was partly illegible; however, certain of its provisions may be recorded as follows (NRO: ANW Will 1643 [Old Style] f.493):
He left his daughter Amy and the heirs of her body lawfully to be begotten his house or tenement in St George Colegate where Richard Rawley lived. After the death of his (the testator’s) wife Ann, she was also to have his two houses or tenements in St Etheldreda parish in the tenures or occupations of William Breese and Clement Hewett.
He left his daughter Sarah and her husband (Christian name indistinct) Hathaway his houses, lands and tenements in that part of the parish of Mendham lying in Norfolk, and, again after the death of his wife Ann, two other houses in St Etheldreda parish.
Witnesses: William Gostlin, John Syms and William Chapman.
Following her father’s death, Amy Cadywold was formally admitted to the ownership of 7 Tombland at the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court on 7th September 1645. Amy had married Thomas Hawker by the Court of 9th April 1647, when the property was regranted to them. However, on the following 22nd September, they surrendered it to Thomas Sherwood and his wife Anne.
Thomas Sherwood, son of Thomas Sherwood, gentleman, had been apprenticed to Nicholas Rix, worsted weaver, for seven years on 24th February 1638, by dint of which he was subsequently entered as a Freeman of Norwich (Millican, 1934). Having acquired 7 Tombland, the younger Thomas and his wife Anne surrendered it to Thomas Ashwell senior, gentleman, at the Manor Court of 22nd August 1653.
Thomas Ashwell was not living at 7 Tombland in 1659/60, according to the Poor Rate Book. He died intestate in the parish of St Michael at Plea, and administration of his estate was granted to his son and namesake on 19th April 1662 (NRO: ANW Admon, f.42). The latter was formally admitted to the 7 Tombland property at the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court on 16th March 1664. He was not listed as a resident of St George Tombland parish in the Poor Rate Book for 1663/4; however, he served as a Churchwarden here in 1664/5, and was listed as a parishioner in the Poor Rate Book for 1672/3. He paid Norwich Corporation sixpence for an arch against his house in Tombland in 1683 (Jay).
Thomas Ashwell had died by the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court of 21st September 1692, on which date his widow Elizabeth was admitted to the 7 Tombland property. (He was not buried at St George Tombland.) On 21st September 1693, she surrendered it to Elizabeth Robinson, a widow.
Land and Window Tax Assessment evidence is that from or by 1710 until 1727 (in which latter year he was described as insolvent), 7 Tombland was let to John Keymer, one who purchased his Freedom of Norwich as a milliner on 23rd March 1716 (Millican, 1952). He was assessed for having fourteen lights (windows) here. John and his wife Frances had the following children, according to the St George Tombland parish registers:
Mary: baptized 30th April 1710.
Frances: baptized 31st January 1712.
John: baptized 16th and buried 20th August 1713.
John: baptized 5th and buried 13th September 1714.
John: baptized 22nd August and buried 18th September 1715.
John: baptized 16th December 1716.
Ann: baptized 8th December 1717.
Hannah: baptized 19th April and buried 5th May 1719.
Timothy: baptized 11th June 1721 and buried 24th November 1723.
Hannah: baptized 15th and buried 27th July 1723.
Thomas Robinson, son of Elizabeth the owner of 7 Tombland, was admitted to this property at the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court on 21st September 1726 as a consequence of her death. Land Tax Assessment evidence is that Thomas did not occupy this house; indeed, on 9th October 1735 he surrendered it to his tenant, Francis Goodson the elder, blacksmith, albeit I did not discover how long the latter had lived here then.
Francis Goodson had been admitted to the Freedom of Norwich as a blacksmith on 4th December 1714, his father and namesake having been a blacksmith in St Giles parish (Millican, 1952). Land Tax Assessment evidence is that the Francis with whom we are concerned was the owner-occupier of 7 Tombland until 1747, when he moved away. However, he continued to own this property until 2nd September 1762 when he surrendered it to Gabriel Plummer of Norwich, carpenter.
Goodson, then Plummer, let this house to two successive (father and son?) William Stevensons for at least the period 1753 to 1774. The elder William was assessed for having fourteen lights here from 1753 until his death; he was buried at St George Tombland on 4th September 1765, aged fifty-five. The younger William and his wife Mary had the following children, according to the registers of this parish:
William: born 25th June 1766.
Elizabeth: born 19th April 1768.
Sarah: born 17th June 1770.
John Witton: born 18th September 1772.
Mary: born 30th April 1774.
As for Gabriel Plummer, he had been admitted to the Freedom of Norwich as a carpenter on 16th August 1740, his father and namesake also having been a carpenter (Millican, 1952). In succession to the younger William Stevenson, the St George Tombland Churchwardens’ Accounts reveal that Mary Tuck, widow, became Plummer’s tenant here in 1775, and was to reside here until 1801. Gabriel Plummer wrote his will as a carpenter of Norwich on 12th June 1788, and while I did not locate his burial record he had died by the following 18th July when his executors proved his will. The provisions of this document may be summarized as follows (NRO: NCC Will 1788 f.133 Littlewood):
He made his nephew, Thomas Bayfield of Bury St Edmunds, woolcomber, and Charles Hill of Norwich, carpenter, his executors. He left them £20 apiece, and his household goods and furniture, implements of household, china and linen.
His executors were to have his leasehold estates in the parishes of St Saviour an St Helen, held of Norwich Corporation, until the youngest of the children of Thomas Bayfield and those of his niece Ann, the wife of Joseph Clark of Banbury, cotton manufacturer, attained their majorities. They were then to sell these properties and share the proceeds between all the children of Thomas and of Ann and Joseph, his debts first having been paid.
He left Susanna Hill, sister of Charles, £10 10s.
Witnesses: John Rudrum, Thomas Salmon and Samuel Pye.
Curiously, the above testator did not refer to 7 Tombland in his will. However, at the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court on 5th August 1789, his executors surrendered this property to Ann Prick of St George Tombland parish, spinster. On 15th February 1795 at St George Tombland, Ann Prick of the parish married James Warner of St John Maddermarket parish, both single. The latter consequently became the (copyhold) owner of 7 Tombland, together with his wife.
The evidence of Churchwardens’ Accounts and Land Tax Assessments is that 7 Tombland was let to Israel Worsley in 1802, to Mary Pue in 1803 and 1804, and to Charles Kitson from 1805 to 1811. On 20th June 1810, James Warner, gentleman of Lakenham, and his wife Ann surrendered 7 Tombland to John Kitson of Norwich, gentleman, for £450. I did not establish the relationship between John Kitson and Charles.
In 1812, John Kitson took up the occupation of 7 Tombland, and was to remain here until 1822. Land Tax Assessment evidence is that this property was empty in 1823, while Mrs Rebecca Watson was the tenant here from 1824 to 1835 (Churchwardens’ Accounts).
The relevant section of Millard and Manning’s Map of 1830 showing Tombland and its vicinity accompanies this History as Map 1.
I am unclear as to who occupied this house from 1836 to 1838, but from 1839 to 1844 it was the home of George Warren Watts Firth.
George Warren Watts Firth was born in 1813, the son of William Firth, Sergeant-at-Law, Steward of Norwich in 1803 and Attorney General of Upper Canada in 1807. He trained at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, and was Assistant Surgeon then Surgeon to the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital from 1854 to 1878 (<em>Hospital</em>). In the Census of 6th June 1841 (which was less detailed than its successors, not stating relationships within families, rounding ages of those of fifteen and upwards down in quinquennial steps, and not giving precise birthplaces), his household at 7 Tombland was enumerated as follows (TNA: HO107/788/9 f.13 p.10):
George Firth: [aged] 25, surgeon, yes [meaning born in Norfolk].
Anne Firth: 55, ind[ependant means], yes.
Mary Firth: 20, governess, yes.
Charles Broughton, 20, apprentice, no [meaning born in England and Wales outside Norfolk].
Anne Norman: 25, servant, yes.
Phoebe Youngs: 15, servant, yes.
After the above Census was taken, George Warren Watts Firth married an Elizabeth, by whom he had the two following children according to the St George Tombland parish registers:
William: baptized 6th September 1843.
Ellen: baptized 23rd November 1844.
On 22nd August 1845, John Kitson of Thorpe Hamlet, Registrar of the Diocese of Norwich and owner of 7 Tombland, together with his wife Hannah Browne (that her second Christian name), surrendered this property to James Steward of Norwich, tailor. According to the St George Tombland Churchwardens’ Accounts, the latter moved to 7 Tombland in 1846 and was to remain here until 1873.
I failed to identify the occupants of 7 Tombland in the Census schedules of 30th March 1851 (TNA: HO107/1814), while the relevant section of the Census of 7th April 1861 was destroyed by vermin (TNA: RG9/1214). In the Census of 2nd April 1871, the occupants of 7 Tombland were listed as follows (TNA: RG10/1812 f.6 p.6):
James Steward: head, married, 63, draper and clothier, [born] Norwich.
Fanny Steward: wife, married, 61, Norwich.
John Steward: son, unmarried, 20, shopman, Norwich.
Maria Steward: granddaughter, 21 (<em>sic</em>), unmarried, Norwich.
James Steward having failed to repay the sum of £200 to Daniel Bloom Preston, the latter foreclosed and so took over the ownership of 7 Tombland. This was revealed at the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court on 2nd October 1876; however, Preston’s seizure of this property had occurred by the previous March. William Andrews then occupied the draper’s shop vacated by Steward as Preston’s tenant (NRO: N/T 2/22).
<strong>Section 3: The Site from between 1876 and 1879.</strong>
Initial note: in this present Section, I deal first with the owners of the property, then with its occupiers.
Bullard and Sons of the Anchor Brewery, Norwich, acquired 7 Tombland from David Bloom Preston between 2nd October 1876 and 22nd July 1879. It was to be enfranchised as freehold for the sum of £180 10s at the Tolthorpe with Felthorpe Manor Court on 1st July 1880 by Arthur Preston of Norwich, gentleman, acting on behalf of its previous owner, then of Bournemouth, presumably as the concluding element of the conveyance agreement with Bullards. Of further, considerable significance is that during that period of just under three years the property here was rebuilt, indeed purpose-built to serve as a public house.
Bullards conveyed the Army and Navy Stores, as 7 Tombland had been named in 1879, to Watney Mann in 1967. Exceptionally, it was named the Tombland Stores on the Ordnance Survey of 1883. As is so often the case in narrating the history of public houses in East Anglia in the post-1967 period, the existence of subsidiary and holding companies makes it difficult to be precise as to when and by whom many such properties were owned. Suffice it say that after a period when this house was owned by Spring Inns, it latterly passed into the ownership of Enterprise Inns, on behalf of Unique Pub Properties Ltd. In any case, the Army and Navy Stores was renamed the Edith Cavell in 1981, and as Coles at Edith Cavell (after considerable refurbishment) in May 2005. It closed on 21st December 2007. According to the <em>Eastern Daily Press</em> of 1st February 2008, a spokeswoman for Enterprise Inns said: “The pub is temporarily closed. We have recruited a quality operator and are hoping to reopen the pub as soon as possible.” At the time of writing, April 2008, the house is undergoing refurbishment.
The property being the subject of this History opened its doors as a public house with the sign of the Army and Navy Stores on 22nd July 1879 – this having been the date when its licence was granted to Elizabeth Thurlow. In the Census of 3rd April 1881, its occupants were enumerated as follows (TNA: RG11/1942 f.11 p.16):
Elizabeth Thurlow: head, widow, 61, publican, Sloley, Norfolk.
Mary Morley: lodger, widow, 30, dressmaker, New Buckenham, Norfolk.
Fred Morley: lodger, 9, Norwich.
Thomas Saul: lodger, married, 71, retired coachman, Blofield, Norfolk.
In the Census of 5th April 1891, the occupants of the Army and Navy Stores were listed as follows (TNA: RG12/1523 f.5 pp.3-4):
Elizabeth Thurlow: head, widow, 72, licenced victualler, Sloley, Norfolk.
William J. Benham: [nephew-in-law,] married, 32, solicitor’s clerk, Norwich.
Bessie Benham: [niece,] married, 29, Norwich.
Willie T. Benham: [great-nephew,] 9, scholar, Norwich.
Violet Benham: [great-niece,] 6, Norwich.
Daisy Benham: [great-niece,] 4, Norwich.
Bessie Benham: [great-niece,] 3, Norwich.
Mary Morley: lodger, unmarried, 39, dressmaker, Old Buckenham, Norfolk. [One observes that her status had been given as married and her birthplace as New Buckenham in 1881.]
In the Census of 31st March 1901, the Army and Navy Stores household was enumerated as follows (TNA: RG13/1838 f.35 p.7):
Elizabeth Thurlow: head, widow, 81, licenced victualler, Sloley, Norfolk.
James W. Benham: nephew-in-law, 42, solicitor’s clerk, Norwich. [His Christian names apparently reversed compared with 1891.]
Elizabeth Benham: niece, 40, Norwich. [Her pet name had apparently been given in lieu of her Christian name in 1891.]
Willie T. Benham: great-nephew, unmarried, 19, insurance clerk, Norwich.
Violet Benham: great-niece, unmarried, 16, Norwich.
Daisy Benham: great-niece, 14, Norwich.
Bessie Benham: great-niece, 12, Norwich.
Annie Benham: great-niece, 6, Norwich.
The relevant section of the Ordnance Survey of 1905 showing Tombland and neighbourhood accompanies this History as Map 2.
The following licensees of the Army and Navy were identified from the Registers of Licences and Registers of Electors:
Edward Victor Smith (in succession to Elizabeth Thurlow): from 10th October 1905.
Thomas Edwin Johnson: from 13th February 1914.
Walter Edward Johnson: from 18th August 1914.
Albert John Guy: from 5th January 1926.
The relevant section of the Ordnance Survey of 1938 showing Tombland and neighbourhood accompanies this History as Map 3.
Lily Guy: from 6th April 1943.
Benjamin Frederick Bird: from 11th February 1947.
George Edward Morris: from 5th April 1947 until 1969. He lived here with his wife Hannah.
Leslie Edwards: from 1970 to 1972. He lived here with his wife Mavis.
Stanley Buck: from 1973 to 1977. He lived here with his wife Joan.
James Carrick: from 1978 to 1979. He lived here with his wife Mary.
Colin Gill: from 1980 to 1983. He lived here with his wife Veronica.
Sharleen Dashwood: from 1984 to 1986.
Kevin Sturman: in 1987. He lived here with his wife Amanda.
John Linford: from 1988 to 1994. He lived here with his partner Deborah Saunders.
Pamela Fitzpatrick: from 4th October 1994. I did not confirm how long she held the licence.
Matthew Peplow: from 11th January 2000. I did not confirm how long he held the licence.
<strong>Geoffrey Ian Kelly, BA(hons), MCLIP</strong>
<strong>21st April 2008</strong>
<strong>END OF TEXT</strong>